In 1996 many countries celebrated the 50th anniversary of computer science.This event is associated with the 50th anniversary of the creation of the first electronic computer Eniac.No computer did not have such a large impact on the development of digital technology as Eniac.
first computer Eniac was established in the US in 1946.The authors of the project are scientists John Mauchly and Eckert Dzh.Presper.The development team included John von Neumann, who formulated the principles of a computer device.Modern computers are designed in accordance with these principles.
According to the principles set forth by von Neumann, a computer must consist of arithmetic and logic unit, control unit program performance, memory, input-output.
first electronic computer Eniac was created by order of the Ministry of Defense to address ballistic problems.Eniac computer was able to solve a lot of problems not only in the military sector.The first successful numerical weather prediction
was made using Eniac in 1950.
computer had a small amount of internal memory, which is enough to store only numerical data.Program payments accounted for almost "solder" in the electronics of the machine.The program was set to trigger a switching circuit 40 typesetting fields, so resetting the machine takes weeks.The first computer to use the decimal number system (in modern computers use the binary system).Its structure was similar to the first computer a mechanical computer.
The Eniac computer used three types of electronic circuits: the coincidence circuit, collecting circuit and triggers.The output of a coincidence circuit appear only when received signals at all inputs.In collecting schemes signal appearing at the output if the signal present on at least one input.Triggers were performed on double triode - two three-electrode vacuum tubes mounted in a cylinder.
use of electric vacuum technologies can achieve speeds that are not available in the application of electro-mechanical components.Eniac computer could perform 5000 additions and 360 multiplications per second.Mechanical and electromechanical calculating machines to make calculations a hundred times slower.
machine weighs 30 tonnes.The area, which is held the first computer - 300 sq.m.The draft of the first computer was included 17,468 vacuum tubes.This is explained by the fact that the Eniac was created to work with decimals.However, such a number of lamps resulted in overheating and damage.In the 17 th. Bulbs every second occurred 1.7 billion the conditions under which one of the lamps could fail.
developers have solved this problem as follows: - vacuum tube was served less stress, and the number of accidents has decreased.Dzh.Ekert was the author of the program control equipment malfunction.Each component of the first computer is carefully checked and sealed in place.
first computer Eniac worked for 9 years since inception.He was last included in 1955.